2. 1807: Cavalry Combat at Friedland.
“Là une mêlée longue et sanglante a eu lieu…”
3. 1809: Cavalry Combat at Alt-Eglofsheim
French Heavy Cavalry vs Austrian Heavy Cavalry
4. 1812: Cavalry Combat at Drouia
The First French General Captured by the Russians in 1812
5. 1813: Cavalry Combat at Liebertwolkwitz
Murat's Dragoons vs Prussian Cuirassiers and Russian Hussars.
1805 Cavalry Combat at Austerlitz
In the midst of the battle while General Vandamme (of Soult's Corps) was ascending the Heights of Pratzen,
Marshal Lannes struggled with the skilled General Petr Bagration, a conflict took place
in the presence of Napoleon which gave a finishing blow to the battle.
The French Guard Cavalry at Austerlitz was comamnded by Marshal Jean Baptiste Bessières, duke of Istria.
As a commander of cavalry, Bessières enjoyed a reputation excelled only by very few of
marshals. Promoted general of division in 1802 and marshal of France in 1804.
Bessieres had courage and cool judgment and was capable of independent command.
He was personally beloved to an extraordinary extent amongst his guardsmen.
At Austerlitz the Guard cavalry was made of battle-hardened veterans.
Bessiers was supported by single horse battery of the Guard Artillery under Dogereau. (Other sources give two batteries or 16 guns) and with 8 guns of Bernadotte's corps.
The Russian Guard was led by Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich (1779-1831).
He was prepared by his grandmother, Catherine the Great, to become an emperor of Russia,
but he never tried to secure the throne.
Russian Lifeguard Horse
Grand Duke unleashed his cavalry against the hard-pressing French infantry. The Lifeguard Horse attacked one battalion of the 4th Line Infantry (approx. 800 men) and broke it. Major Bigarre received 25 saber cuts. One battalion of 24th Light Infantry (600 men) decided to rescue their comrades and was also mauled by the Russians.
Robert Goetz writes: "The routing of the 4th Line and 24th Light occurred a short distance to the east of the French headquarters, and the routed French battalions almost passed through the imperial headquarters in their flight. 'The unfortunate fellows were quite distracted with fear and could listen to nothing; in reply to our reproaches for thus deserting the field of battle and their Emperor they shouted mechanically ‘Vive l'Empereur!' while they fled faster than ever,' recalled Segur. Napoleon dismissed them with a scornful gesture, saying 'Let them go,… and then sent one of his aides-de-camp, General Rapp, to bring up the Imperial Guard Cavalry."
On the French side then arrives Bessieres with the Guard Cavalry. Rapp mentions that the first thing he saw was the French infantry being sabered by the Russian Lifeguard Horse. Seeing French cavalry coming, GL Kologrivov ordered his cavalry to rally and meet the enemy with a carbine volley. He formed each regiment in column by squadron. By this time the French brought up horse battery and opened fire on Russian flank, killing and wounding men and horses. Russian sources mention 16 horse guns of Guard firing from left flank and 8 foot guns of Bernadotte's Corps firing from the right. At the same time Russian horse guns under Kostanetzki got stuck in vineyards and could not support their cavalry. Morland and Rapp charged, and despite (chaotic) carbine volley closed with the Russians and threw their front squadron back on the squadrons standing behind.
French Guard Chasseurs and Mamelukes
With the hussars being in full flight, Morland and Rapp came down upon the two regiments of Guard infantry. One regiment (2 battalions) was deployed in vineyards whereas the other regiment was in open plain with its 2 battalions formed in squares. Six Russian guns attached to the infantry, opened canister fire. The brave Morland was killed. Dahlmann's chasseurs joined Morland's and Rapp's men. It was saber against bayonet fight, infantryman versus man on horse.
Robert Goetz writes: "As the French Imperial Guard cavalry advanced, Drouet's [infantry] division was also reacting to the sounds of battle on the northeastern corner of the heights. The division had already passed between Pratze and the Stare Vinohrady and was approaching the Pratzeberg when Drouet redirected his division to the northeast to meet this new threat. 'My division was ordered to join [Soult's Corps]. But during my march, the Emperor learned that the Russian reserve, composed of the Guard infantry and cavalry, had made an attack on our center, and had overthrown a brigade of infantry from Vandamme's division and strongly shaken the Chasseurs of the Imperial Guard, whose colonel was later killed. This circumstance changed the plans made by the Emperor. He directed my division to support the center. To arrive earlier at the threatened point, I crossed a marsh [probably an area on the heights where the ground had been churned into mud by the earlier fighting] and I formed my division in column by half battalions (keeping advancing all the while)."
Skirmishers of Drouet's infantry division came and opened musket fire on the
Russian guard. French artillery fired canister.
The Russians suffered heavy casualties before they managed to extricate themselves.
Kostanetzki, "The Russian Hercules" used his ramrod with expertise :-) The Mamelukes however managed to capture 4 of the 6 guns. Abamelek's men and two other squadrons of hussars counterattacked. The French cavalry threw them back. Meanwhile on the other flank, the Lifeguard Horse with 4 horse guns, slowly fell back. With the Russian cavalry and artillery gone, the French brought up Dogereau's Guard horse battery and opened fire on the retreating Guard infantry. Dahlmann's (?) and Rapp (?) squadrons then charged but the infantry formed squares and repulsed them. Only the Mammelukes managed to hack their way into one of the squares and broke it. Other squares renewed their retreat and crossed the Rausnitz Stream under fire from the skirmishers and horse battery.
"Rescue the infantry !"
Constantine sent urgent message to the remaining Guard cavalry for assistance.
Two miles before Austerlitz, five squadrons of Guard Cavalry Regiment
(the popular Chevaliers) halted, cleaned their uniforms, powdered their hair and
put on the newly received shabraques from St. Petersburg. They left their standards in regimental train.
On their flank were 2 squadrons of Lifeguard Cossacks.
When the Chevaliers were 300 paces away from Raussnitz Stream, Grand Duke met
them with the cry "Rescue the infantry !"
The Lifeguard Cossacks charged and Rapp's and Dahlmann's chasseurs fell back. The Cossacks also drove off the French skirmishers. The French cavalry took refuge behind Drouet's Infantry Division (5,500 bayonets and several guns). Drouet's blue-clad infantry was ready to greet the enemy as best as they could. Depreradovich-II decided to go after the chasseurs anyway.
The French musketry "toppled a good many
Depreradovich-II decided to go after the chasseurs.
His 2 squadrons passed through the intervals between Drouet's battalions, but the musketry
"toppled a good many from the saddles." (Duffy - "Austerlitz 1805" p 138)
Meanwhile Repnin's 2 squadrons arrived on the scene and charged Rapp's 2 squadrons of Guard chasseurs who were pursuing the Cossacks. (Repnin was joined by one platoon of I Squadron led by 17-year old Albrecht. Albrecht's troop was earlier charged with escorting the regimental train into safety and was unable to catch up with his parent squadron.)
"... we were afraid that our comrades [Guard Chasseurs]
Rapp's Guard chasseurs were sabared and pushed back. They were in dire straits, and as Jean-Roch Coignet put it "... we were afraid that our comrades were going to be cut up" (Jean-Roch Coignet - "Les Cohiers du Capitaine Coignet *1799-1813 Paris 1883, p 473)
Dahlmann's 3 squadrons came to the rescue. Rapp rallied his men and joined Dahlmann. Now Repnin's 2 squadrons faced 5 French squadrons (4 chasseurs and 1 Grenadiers-Velites). For 15 minutes there was a frenzy of cuting and thrusting. One squadron of Chevaliers was surrounded by three squadrons (II and IV of Guard Chasseurs, and V Grenadiers-Velites). Olenin's 3 squadrons rushed to the rescue of Repnin's men.
"Let the ladies in St. Petersburg to cry!"
Ordener's 4 squadrons of Guard grenadiers advanced from behind
infantry clutching their long sabers and shouting, "Let the ladies in St. Petersburg to cry!"
It was Bessieres third line and reserve. The fight was sharp but short. The Russians were thrown back and pursued until Krenowitz.
In the end of this drama 17-years old Albrecht with one NCO
were one of the last who still resisted. Their horses were killed and the two stood back
to back parrying the blows before the NCO was wounded and fell down. Albrecht received a
saber blow from behind and a pistol shot was fired at his face but it misfired.
This very young man also received a stab to his right hand at the sinews, as it forced him
to let go his heavy sword. Albrecht fell on his right hand, which prevented bleeding
and saved his life.
Another hero was 19-years old Lieutenant Evdokin Davidov-III.
The Grenadiers were enraged by his resistance and cut him seven times. After the battle he
was found and taken by the French into the city of Brunn.
Pursuit and Casualties.
Around 2 pm the French skirmishers again went forward, crossed the Rausnitz Stream and exchanged fire with Russian skirmishers. Several cannons on both sides opened a long-range fire. The Chevaliers, Lifeguard Cossacks, and three weak Austrian cuirassier regiments covered the retreat of the Russian Guard infantry.
In the evening the Chevaliers set up a chain of picquets and observed the enemy.
They have lost part of their regimental train, including 7.800 silver roubles.
From their posts they could see in a far distance the French Emperor and his entourage.
They kept eye on the enemy until Bagration's troops replaced them.
(K = killed, W = wounded, M = missing)
The French sources mention the capture of several standards of Russian cavalry.
The given numbers vary from "all atandards", through "some standards" to one standard.
For example General Laville wrote: "Rapp brought back the commander of the Chevaliers Garde
and their standard for the Emperor." The problem with this claim is twofold, after the battle
the Chevaliers still had all their standards and their commander.
It was Repnin who was captured, one of five squadron commanders.
Although the number of squadrons increased from 3 to 5, the two new squadrons were still
without standards. Thus at Austerlitz the regiment had 5 squadrons and 3 standards.
The French concluded that the two "missing" standards must be "captured" at Austerlitz.
(In 1814 the Chevaliers had 7 squadrons and received 7 new standards as award for their
exploits at Fère Champenoise. These were the St. George standards similar to those
received by other distinguished units.)
The Russians have no problems to admit to the heavy casualties in this battle,
and even to the loss of standards by their regiments, however they deny any loss by the the
Guard cavalry. Any as such loss couldn't pass unnoticed by everyone for all the time.
When in 1828 the Lifeguard Jägers lost just one standard the fact was quickly known by the
entire army and it brought raging sanctions against the troop. If you find more information
on this subject in libraries or on the internet please let us know.
1807 Cavalry Combat at Friedland
Several cavalry combats took place during the battle of Friedland in June 1807.
The French cavalry was represented by several divisions: Nansouty's 1st Heavy Cavalry,
St.Sulpice's 2nd Heavy Cavalry, Espagne's 3rd Heavy Cavalry, Latour-Maubourg's 1st Dragoons,
Grouchy's 2nd Dragoons, Milhaud's 3rd Dragoons, and Lasalle's Light Cavalry Division.
The Russians had 60 squadrons near Heinrichsdorf ready for the battle.
Rhey were mostly dragoons and hussars, but there were also cuirassiers (no armor) and uhlans.
This strong cavalry force was supported by several horse guns.
Two squadrons of French 2nd Horse Carabiniers led by Colonel Amable-Guy Blanchard
advanced against Russian cavalry that were preparing for their own charge.
The carabiniers struck the enemy and after 5 minutes of fight pushed the Russians back.
General de Division Etienne-Marie-Antoine Champion de Nansouty brought in one of the best heavy cavalry outfits of the French army,
the 1st Horse Carabiniers (1er Carabiniers-a-Cheval). Approx. 2.000 Cossacks then came against Nansouty's flank.
Nansouty was reinforced with 2.500 light cavalrymen (two hussar and four chasseur regiments)
who swept the Cossacks from the field, chasing them as far as Lyna (Alle) River.
Dragoons vs Uhlans.
Not only the heavy cavalry was involved, the dragoons also had their share of fighting.
The green-clad dragoons were under the command of Latour-Maubourg, Grouchy and Milhaud.
Grouchy wrote that he himself led his dragoons in 15 charges (!) In short breaks between
the charges the French and Russian horse artillery cannonaded the cavalry.
Kornet F. V. Bulgarin of Grand Duke Constantine Uhlans described what he saw on the northern flank.
One squadron of uhlans under Shcheglov stood by 2 light guns that fired at French
foot skirmishers. This little cannonade went for a while before a column of enemy cavalry
went out of the wood. The front of this column was not too wide but its depth was unknown
to the uhlans. According to Bulgarin two squadrons of uhlans and one squadron of
Lifeguard Cossacks advanced against the enemy.
The column of French dragoons halted and stood motionless like a stonewall
[kak kamennaia stiena] waiting for the enemy. The dragoons from the second rank
grabbed their muskets and began firing while these in the first rank drew sabers and waited.
The charging uhlans first slowed down and then halted.
The Russians dashed rightward but here unforseen misfortune blocked their path, it was a robust wattling. The Cossacks jumped off their mounts and tried to remove this obstacle, while the rear ranks of the uhlans frantically fought with the head of the French column. The French officers fired their pistols at point blank, while some dragoons used their muskets and long swords. Bulgarin's horse was hit by two bullets to the head and fell down like an oak. Bulgarin barely escaped on foot.
Heavy Cavalry vs Light Cavalry.
Russian General Lambert was ordered to scout the extreme left of the French battleline.
He had three regiments: Grand Duke Constantine's Uhlans, Lifeguard Hussars (3 squadrons) and the black clad
Alexandria Hussars. They passed through a wood and saw the French.
The French trumpets sounded and the dragoons and cuirassiers immediately mounted their horses.
Then took place a massive cavalry battle.
According to Bulgarin, the French had 50 squadrons of cuirassiers and dragoons.
Thirty five squadrons of light cavalry represented the Russian side. The French were
commanded by Generals Grouchy and Espagne, the Russians were led by General Fedor Uvarov.
The ground was level and good for cavalry actions.
Bulgarin wrote that the French tactics was different from the Russian. The cuirassiers and
dragoons attacked in slow pace, formed in three deep columns. One column attacked
from the front and two from the flanks.
With the daylight glitting from their helmets these dark phalanxes of heavy cavalry
moved against Uvarov's hussars and guardsmen.
End of Battle. Casualties.
Grouchy was defeated by Uvarov and reported that “one cuirassier and one dragoon regiment were destroyed.” Grouchy in his “Raport de la bataille de Friedland 14 juin 1807” mentions that his forces were threatened by Cossacks from the rear and pressed from the front by regular cavalry. That his cavalry conducted many charges and the mêlées were long and bloody “Là une mêlée longue et sanglante a eu lieu…”
The Russian cavalry suffered heavy casualties: Colonel Zagriazhski, commander of the I
Squadron of Lifeguard Hussars received several saber wounds, fell down from
his horse and was taken prisoner. Kornet Korostovtzev of the Grodno Hussars received 5
saber wounds and died in hospital.
1809 Cavalry Combat at Alt-Eglofsheim
The Austrian troops invaded Bavaria on April 8, 1809 proclaiming a War of German Liberation. "Austria wants to get slapped; she shall have it," Napoleon said. Two weeks later, the French troops battered the Austrians, forcing them to retreat back across the border. Napoleon moved his army from the Isar and instructed Marshal Davout to occupy the Austrians but not to attack them until his own army attack the Austrian flank. When Napoleon arrived the Austrians were chased out of Buchhausen. Davout pressed toward Ober- and Unter Laichling and Sanding. The Austrian troops broke and fled north, while their cavalry attempted to slow the French pursuit.
A massive cavalry battle took place after sunset at Alt-Eglofsheim. There were 12,000 to 14,000 cavalry engaged. This is often said that 5 French regiments faced only 2 Austrian regiments, giving ratio of 2.5 to 1. There are however several problems with this count. The 5 regiments had total of 20 squadrons, while the 2 Austrian units had total of 12 squadrons (ratio of only 1.66 to 1). Additionally both sides had troops on the flanks and in reserve. The French also enjoyed 2 to 1 advantage in artillery.
Loraine Petre described the cavalry battle at Alt-Eglofsheim in detail.
Austrian cavalry line stood in front of Alt-Eglofsheim and stretched north-eastwards beyond
it. Their cuirassiers in two lines in the centre, but with a front of only one
regiment, opposed to the three of Nansouty. The light cavalry were on the flanks of the
"Close! Cuirassiers close up!"
On the left 24 French horse guns replied to the Austrian artillery [12 guns].
The Austrian cuirassiers sounded charge and drew sabers.
The scene which was about to be enacted under the light of the rising moon,
about 7 P.M. on this 22nd April, was one of the most dramatic and awe-inspiring
in modern war.
Now only 100 yards separate the opposing fronts, when the carabiniers in Nansouty's centre halt. At the same moment the cuirassiers receive the order, "Trot! March!" The halt is only for a moment whilst the carabiniers can fire a volley in the faces of the Austrians, and then, drawing their sabres, join in the line which is now trotting forward in a semicircle, with the outer regiments threatening the Austrian cuirassiers' flanks.
At the trot still, the French line meets the Austrian galloping
horsemen in a fearful crash which drives each front line back on its supports.
Each penetrates the other, whilst the light cavalry meet on either flank.
James Arnold (quoting Pelet) gave description of the melee: "the horrible working of
l'arme blanche, its sabres echoing on the helmets and the cuirasses like a hammer on an
anvil, the shrill of the trumpets, the frightful cries of the combatants …. Iron clashed
against iron, causing numerous sparks, which shone in the midst of the darkness.
Soon the moon rose, lighting this terrible and imposing scene. The Austrian cuirassiers,
protected only in front, received great losses yet all displayed the highest bravery."
The superb Kaiser Cuirassiers [6 squadrons] entered the fray. They were supported by Stipsicz Hussars [8 squadrons] on the left. These troops halted the French. Nansouty's second line [8 squadrons] came forward. The Vincent Chevauxlégeres [8 squadrons] attempted to hit Nansouty in the flank, but two Wirtembergian regiments [6 ? squadrons] challenged them. In general melée the French take upper hand and the Austrians flee. The Austrian retreat is protected by a charge of the Ferdinand Hussars [2 sq.].
General Schneller was wounded as the victors pursued the Austrians towards the Ratisbon road. One author described that the Austrians "had respectively 13 and 8 times more dead and wounded than the French." The Austrian casualties were heavier not only because of their half-armor vs full French armor. There were also troops on both sides without any armor (hussars, chevaulegeres, jagers zu pferde, light dragoons, Wirtembergians, Bavarians etc.) The Austrians however, and not the French, were the ones fleeing. This is known that in cavalry combat the heaviest casualties are inflicted during pursuit.
Cavalry Combat at Drouia 1812
The combat at Drouia took place in the beginning of Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812.
Russian light troops under Kulniev surprised and defeated French and Poles led by General de Brigade
St. Geniez (Saint-Genies). Jozef Zaluski described in detail the situation before the battle:
"...there was an island in the Dvina which could facilitate any attack from that quarter.
It was a spot which called for great vigilance. I was afraid the French cavalry's
advance guard, made up of two chasseur regiments under General St-Geniez - who also
commanded the Uminski [Hussar] Regiment - might be attacked on this side.
When Sebastiani asked Zaluski what he's seen, he mentions Wittgenstein's troops. "At this name he [Sebastiani] exclaimed: 'Wittgenstein's bungler who doesn't know his job !' More and more I began to fear such vain self-assurance would be punished."
Britten-Austin described what happened next: "At lunch Zaluski is no less impressed by
his host's table silver than by his knowledge of Polish affairs. Sent back to Murat with
an account of the state of affairs at Drouia, he's received by the King of Naples,
who in a long tete-a-tete, extols the Polish ladies' charms, saying he's bored with the
throne of Naples and would much prefer to command 100,000 Polish cavalrymen.
Finally Zaluski, 'enchanted to have discovered a candidate for the Polish crown,
but absolutely sceptical about the pretender's political worth,' withdraws.
Baron de Marbot described the combat from the French point of view:
"... the corps commanded by Ney, as well as the immense body of cavalry commanded by Murat,
were proceeding up the left bank of the Dvina towards Polotsk, while Wittgenstein's Russian
army followed the same route on the right bank.
GdB St. Gèniez's Light Cavalry Brigade:
General Yakov Petrovich Kulniev's force:
The combat at Drouia began with the Cossacks chasing the French outposts toward the village of
Onikshty where stood Polish 10th Hussars and French 11th Chasseurs.
Kulniev formed the hussars in two lines, four squadrons of the I Battalion in the first
line, and four squadrons of the II Battalion were in the second. The Cossacks were placed on the flanks.
The entire force was screened with horse skirmishers. (See map -->)
Kulniev charged and the French and Poles withdrew to the safety of the wood. During the hasty
withdrawal, which after a short melee turned into flight, the French and Poles lost 150
as prisoners, including St. Gèniez.
Napoleon learned about this defeat when he left Vilno (Vilnius) for Glubokoie.
The capture of St. Geniez made Kulniev name known in Russia. St. Geniez was the first French general captured in 1812 and was sent to Moscow where the populace watched him as a sensation. The governor of Moscow, Rostopchin, wrote to Balashov that St. Geniez was threatened with beating by the civilians. As a result St.Geniez asked for a small house with a garden in a safe location.
Cavalry Battle at Liebertwolkwitz, 1813
On October 14th 1813 at Libertwolkwitz was fought a great cavalry battle.
Digby-Smith writes: "On the evening of 13 Oct, Murat aimed to withdraw northwards
over the Parthe and to stand between Leipzig and Taucha. ... Napoleon sent an aide,
Mjr Baron Gourgaud, to stop him. ... Murat then turned back and took post on the slight
but dominant heights between Mark-kleeberg and Liebertwolkwitz. ... "
Ernst Maximilian Hermann von Gaffron of the Prussian Silesian Cuirassiers describes
the first movements and charges: "In order to gain the gentle heights of Wachau and
Liebertwolkwitz, we had to pass through the defile of the pretty village of Crobern,
which lay in a shallow valley. This we did at a fast trot, with our carbines at the
"Finally, we managed to break into their ranks ..."
Von Gaffron continues: "The enemy dragoons were from Milhaud's first line.
As far as I remember, the Grodno Hussars were first through the Crobern defile,
then our regiment ... The Grodno Hussars were, as usual, brilliant in this combat.
The other regiments followed us as quickly as they could clear the defile. ...
There was no order in the ranks anymore, everyone rode like a wind. ...
The French however were not finished yet. Gaffron writes: "... when suddenly I heard:
En avant, dragons, a bas ces foutous Prussiens ! coming from all sides ! I then realised that I and about 20-50 cuirassiers in the captured
battery were surrounded by hostile dragoons. A colonel of the enemy dragoons, a tall,
handsome man on a large, English thoroughbred light chestnut, decked out in the finest
equipment, called his dragoons tegether and charged us.
Dr Seyfert, the vicar of Taucha, recounts the ensuing combats as follows: 'Pahlen had
expected to snatch an early victory but was overthrown; the Izum and Grodno Hussars were
driven off in confusion. ... In the Allied centre ... was the Soumy Hussars and a Russian
horse battery. This battery fired on the French cavalry: two of the enemy regiments charged
the battery, which only managed to limber up and escape in time. The Soumy Hussars
counter-attacked but were outnumbered and had to flee into Gulden-Gossa. At this point,
the Prussian Neumark Dragoons arrived ... and charged forward together with the Russians.
The fight was hectic, bitter."
Dr Seyfert continues: "Murat now threw in Milhaud's dragoons with L'Heritier's and Subervie's men in second and
third lines. Approx. 5,000 cavalry advanced in an apparently invincible mass. ... At this
critical point, General Roder came up with the Brandenbourg and Silesian Cuirassiers,
the heavy French phalanx was hit in right flank. Due to their close formation, most of
the French troopers could not use their weapons and the whole mass was pushed back to Wachau.
Murat's Second Offensive.
"At 2 PM Murat concentrated his cavalry for another assault.
Milhaud's Spanish veterans were again at the head of the column.
L'Heritier's dragoons behind them, then Subervie and then Berkheim.
The assault went due south. Like a great, shining snake, the massive column of horsemen burst out of the smoke
and bore down on the Allies. As the Russian ADC Molostof said: 'All shrank back
from this glistering vision which embodied for us the magic that surrounded Napoleon's brows.
The mass of riders, with the sun glancing from their weapons and helmets, formed one, huge,
endless column which crushed all before it and hit the Prussians particularly hard.'
Sources and Links.
Britten-Austin - "1812: The March on Moscow"
Scotty Bowden - "Napoleon's Grande Armee of 1813"
George Nafziger - "Napoleon at Leipzig".
Loraine Petre - "Napoleon and the Archduke Charles"
James Arnold - "Crisis on the Danube"
Digby-Smith - "1813: Leipzig"
Flags from warflag.com
Cavalry: Its History and Tactics.
History of Cavalry.
US Cavalry Association.
Saber or sabre.
Joachim Murat "The First Saber of Europe" - commander of Napoleon's cavalry
Antoine-Charles-Louis de Lasalle - commander of "Brigade Infernale"
Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz - one of the greatest cavalry generals
Casimir Pulaski "Father of the American Cavalry"
Russian cavalry ~ Prussian cavalry ~ Austrian cavalry
Cavalry Tactics and
Combat - Part 1
Types of Cavalry, Weapons, Armor, Organization, Tactical Formations
Cut and Slash vs Thrust, Charge, Melee, Pursuit, Casualties
The Best Cavalry
Napoleon, His Army and Enemies